Lyme disease, a tick-borne illness, has become a significant health concern in many parts of the world. However, in India, it still remains a rare occurrence with only about 5000 cases reported until now. But it is an illness that must not be taken lightly. Caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, Lyme disease can lead to a wide range of symptoms and complications if left untreated. 

But before you can treat it, it needs to be diagnosed. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are integral for managing this condition effectively as it is for any critical illness. 

In this blog, we will explore the diagnosis and treatment options for Lyme disease, shedding light on the importance of early detection and the various therapeutic approaches available.

Identifying precedes treatment: The diagnosis

Diagnosing Lyme disease can be challenging, primarily due to the variability of symptoms and the fact that it often mimics other illnesses. However, timely and accurate diagnosis is essential to prevent the progression of the disease and its complications.

Clinical assessment

The first step in diagnosing Lyme disease is a thorough clinical assessment. A healthcare provider will inquire about the patient’s medical history, recent outdoor activities, and any known exposure to ticks. They will also evaluate the patient’s symptoms, which can range from mild to severe and may include fever, fatigue, joint pain, and a characteristic skin rash known as erythema migrans. A history of a tick bite in an endemic area can be a crucial clue.

Serological tests 

Serological tests are commonly used to detect antibodies to the Lyme disease bacterium in the blood. The two primary types of serological tests are Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) and Western blot. However, these tests may not be accurate during the early stages of infection, as it takes time for the body to produce detectable levels of antibodies. False negatives can occur, so repeat testing may be necessary if there is a strong clinical suspicion of Lyme disease.

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) 

PCR is a molecular diagnostic technique that directly detects the genetic material of Borrelia burgdorferi in patient samples. This method is most reliable in the early stages of the disease when the bacterium is present in the blood or cerebrospinal fluid. It is especially useful in diagnosing Lyme disease in patients with atypical symptoms.

Clinical diagnosis

In cases where serological tests and PCR are inconclusive or unavailable, healthcare providers may rely on clinical diagnosis based on the patient’s symptoms and exposure history. This approach is particularly crucial in areas where Lyme disease is prevalent and where early treatment is crucial.


Once diagnosed, Lyme disease is typically treated with antibiotics. The choice of antibiotics and the duration of treatment depend on several factors, including the stage of the disease and the patient’s overall health.

Early localised Lyme disease

In the early stages of Lyme disease, when the infection is localised and has not spread, oral antibiotics are usually effective. The most commonly prescribed antibiotic for this stage is doxycycline, amoxicillin, or cefuroxime. A typical course of treatment is 10 to 21 days, although the exact duration may vary depending on the patient’s response to treatment.

Early disseminated Lyme disease

If the infection has spread to other parts of the body, such as the nervous system or the heart, intravenous antibiotics may be necessary. Ceftriaxone is often used in such cases. The treatment duration may be extended, and close monitoring is essential to ensure the infection is fully eradicated.

Post-treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome (PTLDS): 

Some patients continue to experience symptoms after completing antibiotic treatment, a condition known as PTLDS. The exact cause of PTLDS is not well understood, and there is no consensus on the best approach to manage it. Supportive care, such as pain management and physical therapy, may be recommended to alleviate persistent symptoms.

Chronic Lyme disease: 

Chronic Lyme disease, characterised by ongoing symptoms despite extended antibiotic treatment, remains a topic of debate in the medical community. Some healthcare providers may prescribe prolonged courses of antibiotics, while others argue that there is insufficient evidence to support this approach. Patients with persistent symptoms should seek the guidance of a Lyme disease specialist for a tailored treatment plan.


Preventing Lyme disease is the most effective strategy. Here are some key preventive measures:

Tick avoidance 

Minimise exposure to ticks by wearing long-sleeved clothing, using insect repellent, and staying on marked trails when hiking in tick-prone areas.

Tick checks 

After spending time outdoors, perform thorough tick checks on yourself, your family members, and pets. Ticks can be small, so be diligent in your examination.

Tick removal 

If you find a tick attached to your skin, remove it promptly with fine-tipped tweezers, grasping it as close to the skin’s surface as possible. Clean the area with antiseptic.

Tick-proof yard

Keep your outdoor spaces well-maintained to reduce tick habitats. Consider using tick-control products in your yard.

Closing thoughts 

Lyme disease can have serious health consequences if not diagnosed and treated promptly. A comprehensive approach to diagnosis, treatment, and prevention is vital in managing this tick-borne illness effectively. If you suspect you have been exposed to ticks or exhibit symptoms of Lyme disease, seek medical attention promptly to receive the appropriate diagnosis and treatment. Additionally, practising preventive measures can reduce the risk of contracting Lyme disease, allowing you to enjoy the great outdoors with peace of mind.

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